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Digital Media Toolbox: Citing Audio Visual Materials

This guide contains information for creating born-digital media projects, resources for finding and using media, and copyright.

Citing Audiovisual Materials

It's important to cite sources you used in your research for several reasons:

  • To show your audience you've done proper research by listing sources you used to get your information
  • To be a responsible scholar by giving credit to other researchers and acknowledging their ideas
  • To avoid plagiarism by quoting words and ideas used by other authors
  • To allow your audience to track down the sources you used by citing them accurately in your paper by way of footnotes, a bibliography, or reference list

Adapted from MIT Libraries, used with permission under CC BY-NC 2.0

 

Click a link to jump to a citation format
APA  |  Chicago  |  Creative Commons  |  MLA

APA Citations

Music

Writer, A. (Copyright year). Title of song [Recorded by B. B. Artist if different from writer]. On Title of album [Medium of recording: CD, record, cassette, etc.] Location: Label. (Date of recording if different from song copyright date).

Example:

Brahms, J. (1868). Lullaby [Recorded by SPJ Music, Inc.]. On 25 Tranquil Classics [CD] Hauppauge, NY: SPJ Music, Inc. (2002).
 

Photos

Online Photos

Photographer's Last name, First initial. (Date of composition (if unknown use n.d.). Title of work. Museum or collection, City of collection or museum. Retrieved Date of access, from complete URL of website

Examples:

Hoflehner, J. (n.d.). Liquid Wall. Retrieved March 25, 2010, from http://www.photographersgallery.com/photo.asp?id=4421

Video

BluRay/DVD/VHS

Producer, A. A. (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Spielberg, S. (Producer). (1993). Schindler's List [DVD]. United States: Universal Pictures.
 

Online Video

Name (Producer). (Year). Title of video [Mode]. Available from complete URL.

Example:

Andrews, A. (Producer). (2007). Deaf ninja [Video]. Available January 5, 2010, from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8

Turner Broadcasting (Producer). (2010). CNN hero: Dr. Andy Moore [Video]. Available from  http://www.cnn.com/video/data/2.0/video/living/2010/03/04/pkg.cnnheroes.moore.profile.cnn.html
 

Motion Pictures

Producer, A. A. (Producer), & Director, B. B. (Director). (Year). Title of motion picture [Motion picture]. Country of origin: Studio.

Example:

Fonda, H. (Producer), & Lumet, S. (Director). (1957). 12 angry men [Motion picture]. United States of America: Orion-Nova Productions.

Websites

Web sites do not include subscription databases

  • Examples are not double-spaced, but your References list should be double-spaced
  • Examples do not show indented lines after the first line, but yours should be indented
  • Omit any information not found (author, organizational sponsor, date published or updated, etc.).
     
There are three elements absolutely necessary for an web site citation:
  • Name (or title) of site
  • Date of retrieval if web site is not Authoritative
  • URL of Homepage (Internet address) (If hard to find like on a government website, complete URL can be used)


Author's Last Name, First Initial. Middle Initial. (Date of Publication or Update). Title of work. Retrieved Month Day, Year, from URL from Homepage

Examples:

Basements and crawl spaces. (2002, June 23). Retrieved  from http://www.hud.gov/ offices/hsg/sfh/ref/sfhp1-25.cfm

Build smarter with alternative materials. (n.d.). Retrieved June 15, 2002, from http://www.build-smarter.com/

Clemens, S. L. (n.d.). Roughing it. Retrieved from http://lcweb2.loc.gov/cgi-in/query/r?ammem/calbkbib:@field(TITLE+@band(Roughing+it.+))

Material adapted from Dixie State University. Used with Permission.

Chicago Citations

According to the Chicago Manual of Style (16th ed.), "Documentation of a recording usually includes some or all of the following pieces of information: the name of the composer, writer, performer, or other person primarily responsible for the content; the title, in italics or quotation marks, as applicable (see 8.192); the name of the recording company or publisher; any identifying number of the recording; indication of medium (compact disc, audiocassette, audiovisual file, etc.); and the copyright date or date of production or performance. Recordings consulted online should include a URL or DOI (see 14.5, 14.6). Supplementary information such as the number of discs in an album and the duration of the recording, as applicable, may also be given." (p. 764)

Live Presentation/Performance

Title of performance. By First Name Last name. Directed by First name Last name. Name of theater, Place of performance, date of performance.

Example:

Lysistrata. By Aristophanes. Directed by Barbara Karger and Michael Preston. Goodwin Theater,
Austin Arts Center, Hartford, CT, April 20, 2006.
 

Music

Conductor, Performer, or composer. Title of composition. Performance. Number on CD or record, Date of production, medium.

Whole Recording:

Mahler, Gustav. Symphony no. 9. Berlin Philharmonic. Conducted by Sir Simon Rattle. EMI 50999 501228 20. 2008, compact disc.

Part of a recording:

Chopin, Frédéric. Ballade no. 4, op. 52. From Chopin: The Four Ballades, Berceuse, op. 57, Barcarolle, op. 60, Scherzo, op. 54, no. 4. Evgeny Kissin (piano). RCA/Victor Red Seal 09026-63259-2. 1999, compact disc.

From a streaming database:

Brahms, Johannes. Symphony no. 1 in C minor, op. 68. London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Neeme Jarvi. Complete Symphonies. Chandos CHAN9776-79. 1999, compact disc. Accessed February 15, 2015. Naxos Music Library.

From an online vendor such as iTunes:

Puccini, Giacomo. “Nessun Dorma.” From Turandot; Luciano Pavarotti (tenor). London Symphony Orchestra. Conducted by Zubin Mehta. Luciano Pavarotti – The Best. Decca 2005, MP3 file. Downloaded May 15, 2009. iTunes.

Photos

Artistʼs name. Title of the work. Date it was created. Repository, museum, or owner (in other words, where it is now located). City or country of origin. Dimensions of the work. Material or medium (oil on canvas, marble, found objects, etc.)

General

Gogh, Vincent van.  The Starry Night.  1889. Oil on canvas.  29 in. x 36 ¼ in.  Museum of Modern Art, New York.
 

Online (websites or databases)

Duveneck, Frank.  Whistling Boy, 1872.  Oil on canvas, 28 in. x 21 ½ in.  Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati.  http://cincinnatiartmuseum.stores.yahoo.net/frduwhboy.html, accessed 12 Aug. 2007.

Titian. Federigo Gonzaga, 1st Duke of Mantua. 1530-1540. Painting on wood. 125 x 99 cm. Available from ARTstor, ID400813/61. (accessed March 3, 2015).

Video

BluRay/DVD/VHS

Name of actors. "Section of video (if applicable)." Title of video. Medium. Directed by First Name Last Name. City of Production: Distributer, Year of Production.

Example:

Neeson, Liam. Schindler's List. DVD. Directed by Steven Spielberg. Universal City, CA: Universal Pictures,1993.

Carrigan, Tim. Cooperative Learning. Videocassette (VHS), 141 min. Produced by Stephanie Smith. Plainview, NY: Teacher's Video Company, 1990.
 

Online Video

Title of video. Directed by First Name Last Name. Distributer, Year. (Access date if you think it is applicable). URL.

Example:

Andrews, Austin.  "Deaf Ninja." YouTube video, 2:54. March 2, 2015. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8.

Brohi, Khalida. "How I Work to Protect Women from Honor Killings." Filmed October 2014. TED video, 18:13. Posted February 2015. http://www.ted.com/talks/khalida_brohi_how_i_work_to_protect_women_from_honor_killings.

Websites

According to Chicago Style Manual (16th ed.), "...Include as much of the following as can be determined:

  • the title or a description of the page
  • the author of the content (if any)
  • the owner or sponsor of the site
  • a URL
  • Also include a publication date or date of revision or modification; if no such date can be determined, include an access date.

Citations of site content are best relegated to notes; in works with no notes, they may be included in the bibliography."

Notes:

22. "McDonald's Happy Meal Toy Safety Facts," McDonald's Corporation, accessed July 19, 2014, http://www.mcdonalds.com/corp/about/factsheets.html.

Bibliography:

Microsoft Corporation. "WD2000: Visual Basic Macro to Assign Clipboard Text to a String Variable." Revision 1.3. Microsoft Help and Support. Last modified November 23, 2006. http://support.microsoft.com/kb/212730.

Citing Blogs

According to Chicago Style Manual (16th ed.), "Citations of blog entries should include the author of the entry; the name of the entry, in quotation marks; the title or description of the blog; and a URL. Citations of a comment should start with the identity of the commenter and the date of the comment (if a time stamp appears with the comment), the words "comment on," and the citation information for the related entry....Blogs that are part of a larger publication should also include the name of that publication. Add the word blog in parentheses after the name of the blog (unless the word blog is part of the name). Citations of blog entries are generally relegated to the notes; a frequently cited blog, however, may be inlcuded in the bibliography."

Notes:

25. AC, July 1, 2008 (10:18 a.m.), comment on Rhian Ellis, "Squatters Rights," Ward Six (blog), June 30, 2008, http://wardsix.blogspot.com/2008/06/squatters-rights.html.

Bibliography:

Ellis, Rhian, J. Robert Lennon, and Ed Skoog. Ward Six (blog). http://wardsix.blogspot.com/.

Material adapted from Dixie State University. Used with Permission.

Creative Commons Citations

A creative commons citation should include:

  1. the song title and link if possible
  2. the artist's name and link if possible
  3. a link to the specific CC license type

Music

“This video features the song, “[song title/link]” by [artist name/link] available under a Creative Commons [license type with link] license.”

Example:

“This video features the song "Desaprendere (Treatment)" by fourstones, available under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial license.”

Photo

Image used with permission under [CC license type with link] by [artist name with link to image].

Example:

Image used with permission under CC BY-NC 2.0 by Tim Zim

 

MLA Citations

  • If your discussion of a work focuses on the contribution of a particular person begin the entry with their name.
  • If you are writing about a film or television series begin with the title.
  • When documenting a work, you should generally cite the organization that had the primary overall responsibility for it.
  • If using a DVD or CD, then include information found on container.

Live presentation/Performance

Author. “Title of Presentation.” Title of work or conference, other contributors, date of performance/presentation, Venue, City (omit city if in the name of venue).

Example:

McCartney, Paul. "Ocean's Kingdom." New York City Ballet, choreographed by Peter Martins, 22 Sept. 2011, David. H. Koch Theater, New York.

Atwood, Margaret. “Silencing the Scream.” Boundaries of the Imagination Forum. MLA Annual Convention, 29 Dec.1993, Royal York Hotel, Toronto.

Music

Focused Person, if needed. “Title of song, if needed.” Title of album, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date.

Example:

Schubert, Franz. Piano Trio in E Flat Major D929. Performance by Wiener Mozart-Trio, unabridged version, Deutsch 929, Preiser Records, 2011.

Beyoncé. “Pretty Hurts.” Beyoncé, Parkwood Entertainment, 2013, www.beyonce.com/album/beyonce/?media_view=songs.
 

Photos

Online Photos

Photographer's name. Title of work. Date of composition, URL.

Example:

Hoflehner, Josef. Liquid Wall. 2005, www.josefhoflehner.com/iceland/02.html.

Adams, Ansel. Monolith: The Face of Half Dome. 1927, library.artstor.org/library/secure/ViewImages?id=8D1Efjk2NjsgQi85cDV5Q3Qg&userId=gDRAcDwn&zoomparams=&fs=true.

Photographs/Artwork

Artist’s name. Title of work (if unknown then description (not in italics)). Date of composition, Museum or collection (if unknown then use Private Collection without city), City of collection or museum (Omit city if in the name of Museum).

Example:

Bearden, Romare. The Train. 1974, Museum of Modern Art, New York.

Video

BluRay/DVD/VHS

Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of work, Other contributors, version, number, publisher, production date.

Example:

Schindler's List. Directed by Steven Spielberg, Universal Pictures, 1993. Universal Studios Home Video, 1994.

Gellar, Sarah Michelle, performer. “Hush.” Buffy the Vampire Slayer, season 4, episode 10, Mutant Enemy, 1999. Twentieth Century Fox, 2003, disc 3
 

Online Video

Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of video, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date, URL.

Example:

Andrews, Austin, performer.  “Deaf Ninja.” YouTube, uploaded by AWTI, 6 Feb. 2007, www.youtube.com/watch?v=L91KVUXRBq8.

Klairmont, Laura. “Breaking the Cycle of Absentee Fathers.” CNN Heroes, Turner Broadcasting Systems, 27 Apr. 2016, www.cnn.com/2016/03/03/us/cnn-heroes-sheldon-smith-fatherhood-dovetail-project/index.html.
 

Motion Picture

Focused Person, if needed. “Episode, if needed.” Title of video, other contributors, version, number, publisher, publication date.

Example:

12 Angry Men. Directed by Sidney Lumet, Orion-Nova, 1957. 

 Day-Lewis, Daniel, performer. A Room with a View. Goldcrest Films International, 1984.

Websites

Web sites do not include subscription databases

Components usually found on a website:

  • Name of the author, compiler, director, editor, narrator, performer, or translator of the work.
  • Title of the work (italicized if the work is independent; in quotation marks if it is part of a larger work).
  • Title of the overall website - italicized (if distinct from item 2),
  • Publisher or sponsor of the site,
  • Date of publication (day, month, and year as available),
  • URL.
  • Date of access (this is considered the version you used, especially important if no date can be found for the website)

Author's Last Name, First Name Middle Name or Initial. “Title of Article or section if using only part of the website.” Name of Website, Name of organizational sponsor (not advertising sponsor), date published or updated, URL. Date of access (needed if no date is found.).

Examples:

Education: Human Development Network, The World Bank, 2016, go.worldbank.org/8TJ7JTJWJ0.

“Gender Inequality and Women in the US Labor Force.” International Labour Organization, 1996-2016, www.ilo.org/washington/areas/gender-equality-in-the-workplace/WCMS_159496/lang--en/index.htm. Accessed 9 May 2016.

Stroud, Butler. “Japan finally accepts ICJ Ruling Applies to all Scientific Whaling.” WDC, Whale Dolphin Conservation, 25 Apr. 2016, us.whales.org/blog/2016/04/japan-finally-accepts-icj-ruling-applies-to-all-scientific-whaling.

Material adapted from Dixie State University. Used with Permission.