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Unfree Labor: Interdisciplinary Perspectives: Unfree Labor throughout Peru

A Research Guide on Unfair/Unfree Labor

Introduction To Understanding the Development and History of Indentured Labour in Peru

To understand modern unfree labor in Peru, we have brought together sources on historical context, both pre-colonialism and during the time of the Spanish Empire, as well sources detailing growth and development in the modern era. This Library Guide is split into three sections: the Inca Empire, the Colonial era of Peru, and Republican Peru. Our sources on the pre-colonial time cover the labor systems put in place by the Inca to subjugate conquered peoples and fuel imperial expansion. In the center column, we examine how the Spanish changed the Inca labor systems already in place to meet their needs as an empire. Finally, in the third column we explore unfair labor and enslavement practiced in recent history and today. As a whole, our Library Guide will navigate you through Peru's association with slavery in the Inca, Colonial and Republican eras.

Articles: Unfair Labor in Inca Empire

Publication Date: December 2017
Garrido and Salazar explore how intensification of economic expansion happened as a consequence of bottom-up reactions of small groups. This article looks at the Inca labor-tax system and local agency in Tawantinsuyu. This research explores how communities engage with and resist the political economy of the state by negotiating spaces and activities outside the control of the Inca Empire.
Publication Date: 1987
The Inca Empire powered their imperial expansion through the mobilization of production and labor on a mass scale, needing to create a complex system of land tenure and labor. This article looks at a particular part of the system, the use of enclaves for production, administration, and mobilization of permanent retainer labor.

Books: Unfair Labor in Inca Empire

Publication Date: 1996
Introductory book to Inca Empire and daily life through examining life-cycle events, such as rites of passage, food and drink, ways of dressing and ornaments, religious rituals, and labor systems.
Publication Date: 2001
A cross-cultural comparative study on imperialism through the Inca empire. Hastorf and D'Altroy use archaeological methods to explore domestic economy and environment in relation to economic expansion and labor both in the pre-Inca era and under Spanish rule.

Other Resources: Unfair Labor in Inca Empire

An accessible beginner's guide, with audio transcription, to Inca society and culture which includes a brief history, important Inca words and terminology that are likely to be encountered during research, class systems and culture practice explanations, and a guide to the daily life of both lower and higher classes.

Books and Articles: Slavery in Colonial Peru

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles: Slavery in Colonial Peru

Video on Colonial and Inca Slavery in Peru

NGOs and Websites: Republic of Peru

Other Research on Labor in the Republic of Peru

Geography of Peru