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Citation Style Guides

APA

General Guidelines

Fonts

  • The preferred font of APA is Times New Roman 12 pt.

Margins

  • Margins should be 1 inch.

Page Numbers

  • Page numbers should be placed in the document header, flush right.

Spacing

  • The entire document should be double spaced.

Title Page

Title

  • The title of the paper should be written in uppercase and lowercase letters. It should also appear in the upper half of the page and be centered between the left and right margins.

Authors name and Institutional Affiliation

  • The author's name (first name, middle initial, last name) and institutional affiliation is normally included on the title page. Students writing research papers may be directed to include the course information also.  The author information should be located below the title by 2 or 3 returns.

Running Head

  • The running head is a shortened (50 characters) version of the official title. It should be located in the document header, flush left in all uppercase letters. On the title page only it is preceded by-  Running head:

Page Numbers

  • The page numbers should be located in the document header, flush right. The title page is considered page 1.

 

Sample Title Page

Articles
Article, Print Journal

Marco, R., Miranda, A., Schlotz, W., Melia, A., Mulligan, A., Muller, U., . . . Sonuga-Barke, E.J.S. (2009). Delay and reward choice in ADHD: An experimental test of the role of delay aversion. Neuropsychology, 23(3), 367-380.

Article, Online Library Database

Smyth, A. M., Parker, A. L., & Pease, D. L. (2002). A study of enjoyment of peas. Journal of Abnormal Eating, 8(3), 120-125. Retrieved from http://www.articlehomepage.com/full/url/


NOTE: When formatting your works cited page, make sure your citations are double spaced with a hanging indent. 

Books
Book with a Single Author

Sciarra, D.T. (2004). School counseling: Foundations and contemporary issues. Belmond, CA: Brooks/Cole-Thomsom Learning.

Book with Two Authors

Dinkmeyer, D.C., & Carlson, J. (2001). Consultation: Creating school-based interventions. Philadelphia, PA: Brunner-Routledge.

Book with an Editor

Atkinson, D.R. & Hackett, G. (Eds.). (1995). Counseling diverse populations. Madison, WI: Brown & Benchmark

A Work (e.g., essay, short story) in an anthology or compilation

Beilke, J.R. (2008). The complexity of school desegregation in the borderland: The case of Indiana. In B.J. Daugherity & C.C. Bolton (Eds.), With all deliberate speed: Implementing Brown v. Board of Education (pp. 199-215). Fayetteville: University of Arkansas Press.


NOTE: When formatting your works cited page, make sure your citations are double spaced with a hanging indent.

Website

Basic Website

Gaiman, N. (n.d.). How dare you. Retrieved from http://www.neilgaiman.com/Cool_Stuff/Essays_By_Neil/How_Dare_You 


NOTE: When formatting your works cited page, make sure your citations are double spaced with a hanging indent. 

Citing a Direct Quotation

When you incorporate a direct quotation into a sentence, you must cite the source. Fit quotations within your sentences, enclosed in quotation marks, making sure the sentences are grammatically correct.

Examples:
Gibaldi (2003, p. 109) indicates that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively.”

Remember that “[q]uotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (Gibaldi, 2003, p. 109).

In 2003, Gibaldi wrote that, “Quotations are effective in research papers when used selectively” (p. 109).

If a quotation is 40 words or more, omit quotation marks and use a block format in which the quotation is indented about ½ inch (or 5 spaces) from the left margin. Maintain double-spacing within the block quote. Cite the source an parentheses at the end of the block quote, after the final punctuation mark.

Example:
Co-presence does not ensure intimate interaction among all group members. Consider large-scale social gatherings in which hundreds or thousands of people gather in a location to perform a ritual or celebrate an event. In these instances, participants are able to see the visible manifestation of the group, the physical gathering, yet their ability to make direct, intimate connections with those around them is limited by the sheer magnitude of the assembly. (Purcell, 1997, pp.111-112)


Citing Multiple Authors

When a work has 2 authors, cite both names every time the reference occurs.

When a work has 3-5 authors, cite all the names the first time the reference occurs; in subsequent citations, use the surname of the first author followed by et al.

When a work has 6 or more authors, use the surname of the first author followed by et al. every time the reference occurs in the text


Citing Information without Page Numbers

If a resource contains no page numbers, as can be the case with electronic sources, then you cannot include a page number in the parentheses. However, if the source indicates paragraph numbers, use the abbreviation “para” and the relevant number in the parentheses. If the paragraph number is not visible, cite the heading and the paragraph number following it.

Examples:
As Myers (2000, para. 5) aptly phrased it…
(Beutler, 2000, Conclusion, para. 1)


Citing Information when you have not seen the Original Source (Secondary Sources)

Sometimes an author writes about research that someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original research report. In this case, because you did not read the original report, you will include only the source you did consult in your References. The words “as cited in” in the parenthetical reference indicate you have not read the original research.

Example:
Fong’s 1987 study (as cited in Bertram, 1996) found that older students’ memory can be as good as that of young people, but this depends on how memory is tested. [Do not include Fong (1987) in your References; do include Bertram (1996).]