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Citation Style Guides

Chicago / Turabian

General Guidelines

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Footnotes

  • Remember that all sources of information and data, whether quoted directly or paraphrased, are cited with a note in the paper, as well as an entry in the bibliography at the end of the paper (p. 743).

Double-Spaced

  • Double-space your entire paper, including notes and the bibliography (p. 66).

General

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Numbering

Note numbers in text are set as superscript numbers (p. 751). 

At the bottom of the page, the note numbers are normally full size and followed by a period (p. 751).

Notes should be numbered consecutively, beginning with 1 (p. 756).

Tip: Use your word processor's "footnote" feature to assist with formatting.

Full Note vs. Shortened Note

The first note referring to a work must be a full note, but subsequent citations for that same work can be shortened. The shortened form should include just enough information to remind readers of the full title or lead them to the bibliography; usually the last name of the author(s), the key words of the main title, and the page number.  Check with your instructor to determine whether this shortened form is acceptable. (p. 757-761)

Example:
1. Salman Rushdie, The Ground beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 25.
2. Unwin, Liam P., and Joseph Galloway. Peace in Ireland. Boston: Stronghope Press, 1990.
3. Rushdie, The Ground beneath, 28.

Consecutive footnotes for the same work

When citing the same source in multiple footnotes one after the other, cite the source in full the first time, and then use the abbreviated form for all subsequent citations until another source is cited (p. 759-760).

Example:
1. Rushdie, The Ground beneath, 25.                                                              
2. Rushdie, 28.

URLs

When the note entry includes a URL that must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon of double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equal sign or an ampersand (p. 750).


Citing a Direct Quotation

Chapter 13 (pp. 708-738) of the Chicago Manual offers recommendations and guidelines for incorporating words quoted from other sources.

Run In Quotes (p. 711)

In incorporating quotations into a text, phrase the surrounding sentence in such a way that the quoted words fit logically and grammatically. Run in quotes are incorporated into the surrounding text and enclosed in quotation marks, "like this."

Block Quotes (p. 711-712)

A quotation of a hundred words of more (at least 6-8 lines of text) can generally be set off as a block quotation. Block quotations are not enclosed by quotation marks, begin on a new line, and are indented.

A quotation of 2 or more paragraphs should be set off as a block quotation.

Permissible Changes to Quotations (p. 710-711)

Chicago style allows minor changes to quotations in specific situations. Most notably, and different than other citation styles, obvious typographic errors may be corrected silently (without comment or sic - see p. 733), unless the passage quoted is from an older work where idiosyncrasies of spelling are generally preserved.


Paraphrasing

Even if you put information in your own words by summarizing or paraphrasing, you must still use a footnote just as you would with a direct quotation. All the information required in the footnote for a paraphrased sentence is the same as if you were using a direct quotation.

 

Bibliography

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Double-Spaced

Double-space your entire paper, including notes and the bibliography (p. 66).

Hanging Indent OR Paragraph Style

For your Bibliography, you may choose to use either the hanging indent style or format each entry like a normal paragraph with a first-line indent (p. 63). While the hanging indent style is more popular, you may want to check with your instructor.

Alphabetical

Arrange your Bibliography in one alphabetical sequence by the surname of the author, or by title or keyword if there is no author (pp. 777).

Capitalization

Capitalize first and last words in titles and subtitles, and capitalize all other major words. Chicago calls this"headline style" capitalization (pp. 526-7).

Italics

Titles and subtitles of books and periodicals are italicized (p. 528-9).

Author's Name(s)

Cite the first author’s name with the surname first, but otherwise give authors’ names as they appear in the source (pp. 785).

Use the author's given names and surname as listed on the title page, not the cover. If there is more than one author, list them in the order used on the title page. (p. 785-6)

If the Bibliography includes two or more entries by the same author(s), give the author(s) name(s) in the first entry only. In subsequent entries, use three hyphens (Chicago refers to this as "3-em dashes") in place of the names, followed by a period. Arrange the works in alphabetical order by title (pp. 782-4).

Example:
Judt, Tony. A Grand Illusion? An Essay on Europe. New York: Hill and Wang, 1996.
---. Reappraisals: Reflections on the Forgotten Twentieth Century. New York: Penguin Press, 2008.

What if there is no author?

If the author or editor is unknown, the note or bibliography entry should normally begin with the title. Initial articles (e.g. The, A, An) are ignored in alphabetization (p. 787-8).

URLs

When the Bibliography entry includes a URL that must be broken at the end of a line, the break should be made after a colon of double slash (//); before a single slash (/), a tilde (~), a period, a comma, a hyphen, an underline (_), a question mark, a number sign, or a percent symbol; or before or after an equal sign or an ampersand (p. 749-50).

Digital Object Identifier (DOI)

If a DOI is included on your source, include it in your citation, rather than a URL, as it is more specific (p. 746).

Placement of the Bibliography

The bibliography is placed at the end of your paper (p. 777).

Article from a Database

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Journal Article from a Database (pp. 833)

Full Note:
1.  Valerie Bunce, "Rethinking Recent Democritization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience," World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 168, http://www.jstor.org/stable/25054217.  

Shortened Note:
2. Bunce, "Rethinking Recent Democritization," 168.

Bibliography: 
Bunce, Valerie. "Rethinking Recent Democritization: Lessons from the Postcommunist Experience." World Politics 55, no. 2 (2003): 167-192. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25054217.

Tip: If you viewed a journal article in its print format, your note would end after the page number, and your Bibliography entry would end after you provide the page range of the article (pp. 833).


Magazine Article

Magazine Article (pp. 837-8)

Full Note:
1. Jason G. Goldman, "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail," Scientific American, December 1, 2017, https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lizards-learn-a-silly-walk-after-losing-their-tail/.

Shortened Note:
2. Goldman, "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail," para. 3.

Bibliography:
Goldman, Jason G. "Lizards Learn a Silly Walk after Losing Their Tail." Scientific American, December 1, 2017. https://www.scientificamerican.com/article/lizards-learn-a-silly-walk-after-losing-their-tail/.

 

Tip: If you view a magazine article online, include the URL of the article's web page in your reference (p. 838).


Newspaper Article

Newspaper Article (pp. 838-42)

Full Note:
1. Laurie Goodstein and William Glaberson, "The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage," New York Times, April 10, 2000, national edition, sec. 1.

Shortened Note:
2. Goodstein and Glaberson, "The Well-Marked Roads."

Bibliography: 
Goodstein, Laurie, and William Glaberson. "The Well-Marked Roads to Homicidal Rage." New York Times, April 10, 2000, national edition, sec. 1.

Tip: If you view a newspaper article online, include the URL of the article's web page in your reference (p. 839).

Book

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Book (p. 799)

Full Note:
1. Salman Rushdie, The Ground beneath Her Feet (New York: Henry Holt, 1999), 25. 

Shortened Note:
2. Rushdie, The Ground beneath, 28.

Bibliography:
Rushdie, Salman. The Ground beneath Her Feet. New York: Henry Holt, 1999.


E-Book

E-Book (p. 824-8)

Example 1

Full Note:
1. William Rayner, Canada on the Doorstep: 1939 (Toronto: Dundurn, 2011), Ebrary e-book, 93.

Shortened Note:
2. Rayner, Canada on the Doorstep, 93

Bibliography:
Rayner, William. Canada on the Doorstep: 1939. Toronto: Dundurn, 2011. Ebrary e-book.

Example 2

Full Note:
1. Elliot Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok (New York: Oxford University Press 2008), doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.

Shortened Note:
2.  Antokoletz, Musical Symbolism.

Bibliography:
Antokoletz, Elliot. Musical Symbolism in the Operas of Debussy and Bartok. New York: Oxford University Press 2008. doi:10.1093/acprof:oso/9780195365825.001.0001.


Contributions to a Multi-Author Book

Contribution to a Multi-Author Book (p. 803)

Full Note:
1. Bob Stewart, "Wag of the Tail: Reflecting on Pet Ownership," in Enriching Our Lives with Animals, ed. John Jaimeson, Tony Bannerman and Selena Wong (Toronto, ON: Petlove Press, 2007),100. 

Shortened Note:
2. Stewart, "Wag of the Tail," 102.

Bibliography:
Stewart, Bob. "Wag of the Tail: Reflecting on Pet Ownership." In Enriching Our Lives with Animals, edited by John Jaimeson, Tony Bannerman and Selena Wong, 97-105. Toronto, ON: Petlove Press, 2007.


Tip: See Chicago Manual pages 799-828 for more information and examples on citing books.

 

Website

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

Basic Website (pp. 844-8)

Full Note:
1. K. A. Johnson and J. A. Becker, "The Whole Brain Atlas," Harvard University Medical School, accessed April 29, 2011, http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/. 

Shortened Note:
2. Johnson and Becker, "The Whole Brain Atlas."

Bibliography:
Johnson, K. A., and J. A. Becker. "The Whole Brain Atlas." Harvard University Medical School. Accessed April 29, 2011.  http://www.med.harvard.edu/AANLIB/.

Tip: If there is no author, use the title or owner of the website, and move it to the author position.

YouTube

Numbers in parentheses refer to specific pages in the Chicago 17th Edition manual.

YouTube Video ("Online Multimedia and Apps") (pp. 873-5)

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname, Multimedia Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), Format, URL.     Tip: For videos designed to run in your browser (eg. Chrome), a specific file format does not need to be mentioned.

Shortened Note:
2. Author Surname, Multimedia Title.

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Multimedia Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Format, URL.

Example

Full Note:
1. chari326, "Browser the Library Cat in the Library," video, 02:49, October 30, 2007, http://youtu.be/_0mI7HKD6CQ.

Shortened Note:
2. chari326, "Browser the Library Cat in the Library."

Bibliography:
chari326. "Browser the Library Cat in the Library." video, 02:49. October 30, 2007. http://youtu.be/_0mI7HKD6CQ.


Lecture or Course Notes

Lecture or Course Notes (p. 852)

General Format

Full Note:
1. Lecturer First Name Surname, "Lecture Title" (lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture).

Shortened Note:
2. Lecturer Surname, "Lecture Title."

Bibliography:
Lecturer Surname, First Name. "Lecture Title." Lecture, Location of Lecture, Month Day, Year of Lecture.

Example

Full Note:
1. G. C. Sullivan, "The Art of Watercolours" (lecture, Red Deer College, Red Deer, AB, November 13, 2003). 

Shortened Note:
2. Sullivan, "The Art of Watercolours."

Bibliography:
Sullivan, G.C. "The Art of Watercolours." Lecture, Red Deer College, Red Deer, AB, November 13, 2003.


Secondary Source

Secondary Source (p. 868)

Sometimes an author will quote work someone else has done, but you are unable to track down the original source. In this case, both the original and the secondary source must be listed in the note and the bibliography.

If, for example, you were reading a book and the author of the book below, (that would be Sarah Gwyneth Ross) made reference to the work done by another author below, (that would be Astrik L. Gabriel), you would refer to the work as per the layout below.

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname {original author}, Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page number, quoted in Author First Name Surname {the author of the book that refers to the thoughts/ideas of the other author}), Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page #.

Shortened Note:
2. Author Surname {original author}, Title, page #.

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name {original author}. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year. Quoted in Author First Name Surname {the author of the book that refers to the thoughts/ideas of the other author}. Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page #.

Example

Full Note:
1. Astrik L. Gabriel, "The Educational Ideas of Christine de Pisan," Journal of the History of Ideas 16, no. 1 (1995): 3-21, quoted in Sarah Gwyneth Ross, The Birth of Feminism: Women as Intellect in Renaissance Italy and England (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009), 23.

Shortened Note:
2. Gabriel, "The Educational Ideas," 3-21.

Bibliography:
Gabriel, Astrik L.. "The Educational Ideas of Christine de Pisan." Culture and ImperialismJournal of the History of Ideas 16, no. 1 (1995). Quoted in Sarah Gwyneth Ross. The Birth of Feminism: Women as Intellect in Renaissance Italy and England. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2009, 23.


Blog

Blog entries (p. 846-7)

Citations of blog entries are usually only found in the notes. If a blog website is cited frequently, it may be included in the bibliography.

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname, "Blog Entry Title," Blog Title (blog), Date, URL.     Tip: If the blog is part of a larger publication or website, Italicize that title and place it after the blog title separated by a comma.

Shortened Note:
2. Author Surname, "Article Title."

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name. "Blog Entry Title." Blog Title (blog). Date. URL.    

Example

Full Note:
1.  Robin Hanson, "On Thought Leaders," Overcoming Bias (blog), December 12, 2017, http://www.overcomingbias.com/2017/12/on-thought-leaders.html55.  

Shortened Note:
2. Hanson, "On Thought Leaders."

Bibliography: 
Hanson, Robin. Overcoming Bias (blog). http://www.overcomingbias.com/. 


Streaming Video

Streaming Video from a Database ("DVDs and videocassettes" and "Online Multimedia") (pp. 872-4)

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname, Title, (Publisher, Date), from Database, format, Duration of video, URL.

Shortened Note:
2. Multimedia Title.

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name or Initial. Multimedia Title. Publisher, Date. Format. From Database. Duration. URL.

Example

Full Note:
1. Amy S. Weber and Ryan Demetrak, Information Literacy: The Perils of Online Research, (Cambridge Educational, 2006), from Films on Demand, video, 21:37, https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=103278&xtid=35675.

Concise Note:
2. Information Literacy.

Bibliography:
Weber, Amy S. and Ryan Demetrak. Information Literacy: The Perials of Online Reserach, Cambridge Educational, 2006. Video. From Films on Demand. 21:37. https://fod.infobase.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?wID=103278&xtid=35675.


Paintings, Photographs, and Sculptures from an Electronic Source

 

Paintings, Photographs, and Sculptures from an Electronic Source (p. 859-60)

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname, Image Title, Year, Medium, Format, Location of physical version (if applicable), URL. 

Shortened Note:
2. Author Surname, Image Title.

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name. Image Title. Year. Medium, Format. Location of physical version (if applicable), URL.

Example

Full Note:
1. Georgia O'Keefe, A Sunflower from Maggie, 1937, oil on canvas, 40.64 x 50.8 cm (16 x 20 in.), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, http://library.artstor.org.ezproxy.ardc.talonline.ca/asset/AMICO_BOSTON_103832223.

Shortened Note:
2. O'Keefe, A Sunflower from Maggie.

Bibliography:
O'Keefe, Georgia. A Sunflower from Maggie.1937. Oil on canvas, 40.64 x 50.8 cm (16 x 20 in.). Museum of Fine Arts, Boson, http://library.artstor.org.ezproxy.ardc.talonline.ca/asset/AMICO_BOSTON_103832223.


Paintings, Photographs, and Sculptures from a Print Source

 

Paintings, Photographs, and Sculptures from a Print Source (p. 824)

General Format

Full Note:
1. Author First Name Surname, "Photograph Title," Year Photo was Taken (if provided), in Book Title (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year), page or plate #.

Shortened Note:
2. Author Surname, "Photograph Title."

Bibliography:
Author Surname, First Name. "Photograph Title." Year Photo was Taken (if provided). In Book Title. Place of Publication: Publisher, Year, page or plate #.

Example

Full Note:
1. Franz Jansen, "8 O'Clock," 1920, in German Expressionist Woodcuts, ed. Shane Weller (New York: Dover Publications, 1994), plate 12. 

Shortened Note:
2. Jansen, "8 O'Clock." 

Bibliography:
Jansen, Franz. "8 O'Clock." 1920. In German Expressionist Woodcuts, edited by Shane Weller. New York: Dover Publications, 1994, plate 12.